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// Copyright Materialize, Inc. and contributors. All rights reserved.
//
// Use of this software is governed by the Business Source License
// included in the LICENSE file.
//
// As of the Change Date specified in that file, in accordance with
// the Business Source License, use of this software will be governed
// by the Apache License, Version 2.0.

//! JSON representation.
//!
//! This module provides a [`serde_json`]-like API that is backed by the native
//! Materialize data format, i.e., [`Row`] and [`Datum`]. It supports
//! efficiently parsing and serializing JSON strings and byte slices with
//! minimal allocations. It also provides seamless interop with APIs that
//! require [`serde_json::Value`], though at a small performance cost.
//!
//! There are two core types in the module:
//!
//!   * [`Jsonb`] represents owned JSON data. This type houses the
//!     deserialization functions.
//!
//!   * [`JsonbRef`] is a borrowed view of JSON data. This type houses the
//!     serialization functions.
//!
//! The name "jsonb" is based on the PostgreSQL data type of the same name.
//! Various sources claim this stands for "JSON better", as compared to the
//! less-efficient `json` data type in PostgreSQL.
//!
//! ## Constructing JSON objects
//!
//! To parse JSON from a string, use the [`FromStr`] implementation. Once
//! parsed, the underlying [`Row`] can be extracted with [`Jsonb::into_row`].
//!
//! ```
//! # use mz_repr::adt::jsonb::Jsonb;
//! let jsonb: Jsonb = r#"{"a": 1, "b": 2}"#.parse()?;
//! let row = jsonb.into_row();
//! # Ok::<(), Box<dyn std::error::Error>>(())
//! ```
//!
//! If the source JSON is in bytes, use [`Jsonb::from_slice`] instead:
//!
//! ```
//! # use mz_repr::adt::jsonb::Jsonb;
//! let jsonb = Jsonb::from_slice(br#"{"a": 1, "b": 2}"#);
//! # Ok::<(), Box<dyn std::error::Error>>(())
//! ```
//!
//! ## Serializing JSON objects
//!
//! To write a JSON object to a string, use the [`fmt::Display`] implementation.
//! The alternate format produces pretty output.
//!
//! ```
//! # use mz_repr::adt::jsonb::Jsonb;
//! # let jsonb: Jsonb = "null".parse().unwrap();
//! format!("compressed: {}", jsonb);
//! format!("pretty: {:#}", jsonb);
//! ```
//!
//! ## Direct JSON deserialization
//!
//! You can skip [`Jsonb`] entirely and deserialize JSON directly into an
//! existing [`Row`] with [`JsonbPacker`]. This saves an allocation and a
//! copy.
//!
//! ```rust
//! # use mz_repr::adt::jsonb::JsonbPacker;
//! # use mz_repr::{Datum, Row};
//! let mut row = Row::default();
//! let mut packer = row.packer();
//! packer.push(Datum::Int32(42));
//! JsonbPacker::new(&mut packer).pack_str("[1, 2]")?;
//! # Ok::<(), Box<dyn std::error::Error>>(())
//! ```

use std::borrow::Cow;
use std::fmt;
use std::io;
use std::str::{self, FromStr};

use dec::OrderedDecimal;
use serde::de::{self, DeserializeSeed, Deserializer, MapAccess, SeqAccess, Visitor};
use serde::ser::{Serialize, SerializeMap, SerializeSeq, SerializeStruct, Serializer};

use self::vec_stack::VecStack;
use crate::adt::numeric::Numeric;
use crate::strconv;
use crate::{Datum, Row, RowPacker};

/// An owned JSON value backed by a [`Row`].
///
/// Similar to [`serde_json::Value`], but the conversion to [`Row`] is free.
///
/// All numbers are represented as [`f64`]s. It is not possible to construct a
/// `Jsonb` from a JSON object that contains integers that cannot be represented
/// exactly as `f64`s.
#[derive(Debug, Clone, PartialOrd, PartialEq)]
pub struct Jsonb {
    row: Row,
}

impl Jsonb {
    /// Constructs a new `Jsonb` from a [`serde_json::Value`].
    ///
    /// Errors if any of the contained integers cannot be represented exactly as
    /// an [`f64`].
    pub fn from_serde_json(val: serde_json::Value) -> Result<Self, anyhow::Error> {
        let mut row = Row::default();
        JsonbPacker::new(&mut row.packer()).pack_serde_json(val)?;
        Ok(Jsonb { row })
    }

    /// Parses a `Jsonb` from a byte slice `buf`.
    ///
    /// Errors if the slice is not valid JSON or if any of the contained
    /// integers cannot be represented exactly as an [`f64`].
    pub fn from_slice(buf: &[u8]) -> Result<Jsonb, anyhow::Error> {
        let mut row = Row::default();
        JsonbPacker::new(&mut row.packer()).pack_slice(buf)?;
        Ok(Jsonb { row })
    }

    /// Constructs a [`JsonbRef`] that references the JSON in this `Jsonb`.
    pub fn as_ref(&self) -> JsonbRef {
        JsonbRef {
            datum: self.row.unpack_first(),
        }
    }

    /// Constructs a `Jsonb` from a [`Row`] containing a single [`Datum`].
    ///
    /// Note that `row` is not checked for validity. Not all `Datum`s are
    /// valid JSON.
    pub fn from_row(row: Row) -> Jsonb {
        Jsonb { row }
    }

    /// Consumes this `Jsonb` and returns the underlying [`Row`].
    pub fn into_row(self) -> Row {
        self.row
    }
}

impl FromStr for Jsonb {
    type Err = anyhow::Error;

    fn from_str(s: &str) -> Result<Self, Self::Err> {
        let mut row = Row::default();
        JsonbPacker::new(&mut row.packer()).pack_str(s)?;
        Ok(Jsonb { row })
    }
}

impl fmt::Display for Jsonb {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
        self.as_ref().fmt(f)
    }
}

/// A borrowed JSON value.
///
/// `JsonbRef` is to [`Jsonb`] as [`&str`](prim@str) is to [`String`].
#[derive(Debug)]
pub struct JsonbRef<'a> {
    datum: Datum<'a>,
}

impl<'a> JsonbRef<'a> {
    /// Constructs a `JsonbRef` from a [`Datum`].
    ///
    /// Note that `datum` is not checked for validity. Not all `Datum`s are
    /// valid JSON.
    pub fn from_datum(datum: Datum) -> JsonbRef {
        JsonbRef { datum }
    }

    /// Unwrapps a `JsonbRef` and returns the inner [`Datum`].
    pub fn into_datum(self) -> Datum<'a> {
        self.datum
    }

    /// Constructs an owned [`Jsonb`] from this `JsonbRef`.
    pub fn to_owned(&self) -> Jsonb {
        Jsonb {
            row: Row::pack_slice(&[self.datum]),
        }
    }

    /// Serializes the JSON value into the given IO stream.
    ///
    /// # Panics
    ///
    /// Panics if this `JsonbRef` was constructed with a [`Datum`] that is not
    /// representable as JSON.
    pub fn to_writer<W>(&self, writer: W) -> Result<(), anyhow::Error>
    where
        W: io::Write,
    {
        serde_json::to_writer(writer, &JsonbDatum(self.datum))?;
        Ok(())
    }

    /// Constructs an owned [`serde_json::Value`] from this `JsonbRef`.
    ///
    /// # Panics
    ///
    /// Panics if this `JsonbRef` was constructed with a [`Datum`] that is not
    /// representable as JSON.
    pub fn to_serde_json(&self) -> serde_json::Value {
        serde_json::to_value(&JsonbDatum(self.datum))
            .expect("conversion to serde_json::Value known to be valid")
    }
}

impl fmt::Display for JsonbRef<'_> {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
        let alternate = f.alternate();
        let mut w = WriterFormatter { inner: f };
        if alternate {
            serde_json::to_writer_pretty(&mut w, &JsonbDatum(self.datum)).map_err(|_| fmt::Error)
        } else {
            serde_json::to_writer(&mut w, &JsonbDatum(self.datum)).map_err(|_| fmt::Error)
        }
    }
}

/// A JSON deserializer that decodes directly into an existing [`RowPacker`].
#[derive(Debug)]
pub struct JsonbPacker<'a, 'row> {
    packer: &'a mut RowPacker<'row>,
}

impl<'a, 'row> JsonbPacker<'a, 'row> {
    /// Constructs a new `JsonbPacker` that will pack into `row`.
    pub fn new(packer: &'a mut RowPacker<'row>) -> JsonbPacker<'a, 'row> {
        JsonbPacker { packer }
    }

    /// Packs a [`serde_json::Value`].
    ///
    /// Errors if any of the contained integers cannot be represented exactly as
    /// an [`f64`].
    pub fn pack_serde_json(self, val: serde_json::Value) -> Result<(), anyhow::Error> {
        let mut commands = vec![];
        Collector(&mut commands).deserialize(val)?;
        pack(self.packer, &commands);
        Ok(())
    }

    /// Parses and packs a JSON-formatted byte slice.
    ///
    /// Errors if the slice is not valid JSON or if any of the contained
    /// integers cannot be represented exactly as an [`f64`].
    pub fn pack_slice(self, buf: &[u8]) -> Result<(), anyhow::Error> {
        let mut commands = vec![];
        let mut deserializer = serde_json::Deserializer::from_slice(buf);
        Collector(&mut commands).deserialize(&mut deserializer)?;
        deserializer.end()?;
        pack(self.packer, &commands);
        Ok(())
    }

    /// Parses and packs a JSON-formatted string.
    ///
    /// Errors if the string is not valid or JSON or if any of the contained
    /// integers cannot be represented exactly as an [`f64`].
    pub fn pack_str(self, s: &str) -> Result<(), anyhow::Error> {
        let mut commands = vec![];
        let mut deserializer = serde_json::Deserializer::from_str(s);
        Collector(&mut commands).deserialize(&mut deserializer)?;
        deserializer.end()?;
        pack(self.packer, &commands);
        Ok(())
    }
}

// The magic internal key name that serde_json uses to indicate that an
// arbitrary-precision number should be serialized or deserialized. Yes, this is
// technically private API, but there's no other way to hook into this machinery
// that doesn't involve all the allocations that come with `serde_json::Value`.
// See the comments in `JsonbDatum::Serialize` and `Collector::visit_map` for
// details.
const SERDE_JSON_NUMBER_TOKEN: &str = "$serde_json::private::Number";

#[derive(Debug)]
enum Command<'de> {
    Null,
    Bool(bool),
    Numeric(OrderedDecimal<Numeric>),
    String(Cow<'de, str>),
    Array(usize), // further commands
    Map(usize),   // further commands
}

struct Collector<'a, 'de>(&'a mut Vec<Command<'de>>);

impl<'a, 'de> DeserializeSeed<'de> for Collector<'a, 'de> {
    type Value = ();

    fn deserialize<D>(self, deserializer: D) -> Result<(), D::Error>
    where
        D: Deserializer<'de>,
    {
        deserializer.deserialize_any(self)
    }
}

impl<'a, 'de> Visitor<'de> for Collector<'a, 'de> {
    type Value = ();

    fn expecting(&self, formatter: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
        formatter.write_str("a valid JSON datum")
    }

    #[inline]
    fn visit_unit<E>(self) -> Result<(), E> {
        self.0.push(Command::Null);
        Ok(())
    }

    #[inline]
    fn visit_bool<E>(self, value: bool) -> Result<(), E> {
        self.0.push(Command::Bool(value));
        Ok(())
    }

    #[inline]
    fn visit_i64<E>(self, value: i64) -> Result<(), E>
    where
        E: de::Error,
    {
        self.0.push(Command::Numeric(OrderedDecimal(value.into())));
        Ok(())
    }

    #[inline]
    fn visit_u64<E>(self, value: u64) -> Result<(), E>
    where
        E: de::Error,
    {
        self.0.push(Command::Numeric(OrderedDecimal(value.into())));
        Ok(())
    }

    #[inline]
    fn visit_f64<E>(self, value: f64) -> Result<(), E> {
        self.0.push(Command::Numeric(OrderedDecimal(value.into())));
        Ok(())
    }

    #[inline]
    fn visit_str<E>(self, value: &str) -> Result<(), E> {
        self.0.push(Command::String(Cow::Owned(value.to_owned())));
        Ok(())
    }

    #[inline]
    fn visit_borrowed_str<E>(self, value: &'de str) -> Result<(), E> {
        self.0.push(Command::String(Cow::Borrowed(value)));
        Ok(())
    }

    #[inline]
    fn visit_seq<V>(self, mut visitor: V) -> Result<(), V::Error>
    where
        V: SeqAccess<'de>,
    {
        self.0.push(Command::Array(0));
        let start = self.0.len();
        while visitor.next_element_seed(Collector(self.0))?.is_some() {}
        self.0[start - 1] = Command::Array(self.0.len() - start);
        Ok(())
    }

    #[inline]
    fn visit_map<V>(self, mut visitor: V) -> Result<(), V::Error>
    where
        V: MapAccess<'de>,
    {
        // To support arbitrary-precision numbers, serde_json pretends the JSON
        // contained a map like the following:
        //
        //     {"$serde_json::private::Number": "NUMBER AS STRING"}
        //
        // The code here sniffs out that special map and emits just the numeric
        // value.

        #[derive(Debug)]
        enum KeyClass<'de> {
            Number,
            MapKey(Cow<'de, str>),
        }

        struct KeyClassifier;

        impl<'de> DeserializeSeed<'de> for KeyClassifier {
            type Value = KeyClass<'de>;

            fn deserialize<D>(self, deserializer: D) -> Result<Self::Value, D::Error>
            where
                D: serde::Deserializer<'de>,
            {
                deserializer.deserialize_str(self)
            }
        }

        impl<'de> Visitor<'de> for KeyClassifier {
            type Value = KeyClass<'de>;

            fn expecting(&self, formatter: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
                formatter.write_str("a string key")
            }

            #[inline]
            fn visit_borrowed_str<E>(self, key: &'de str) -> Result<Self::Value, E> {
                match key {
                    SERDE_JSON_NUMBER_TOKEN => Ok(KeyClass::Number),
                    _ => Ok(KeyClass::MapKey(Cow::Borrowed(key))),
                }
            }

            #[inline]
            fn visit_str<E>(self, key: &str) -> Result<Self::Value, E> {
                match key {
                    SERDE_JSON_NUMBER_TOKEN => Ok(KeyClass::Number),
                    _ => Ok(KeyClass::MapKey(Cow::Owned(key.to_owned()))),
                }
            }
        }

        struct NumberParser;

        impl<'de> DeserializeSeed<'de> for NumberParser {
            type Value = OrderedDecimal<Numeric>;

            fn deserialize<D>(self, deserializer: D) -> Result<Self::Value, D::Error>
            where
                D: serde::Deserializer<'de>,
            {
                deserializer.deserialize_str(self)
            }
        }

        impl<'de> Visitor<'de> for NumberParser {
            type Value = OrderedDecimal<Numeric>;

            fn expecting(&self, formatter: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
                formatter.write_str("a valid number")
            }

            #[inline]
            fn visit_str<E>(self, value: &str) -> Result<Self::Value, E>
            where
                E: de::Error,
            {
                strconv::parse_numeric(value).map_err(de::Error::custom)
            }
        }

        match visitor.next_key_seed(KeyClassifier)? {
            Some(KeyClass::Number) => {
                let n = visitor.next_value_seed(NumberParser)?;
                self.0.push(Command::Numeric(n));
            }
            Some(KeyClass::MapKey(key)) => {
                self.0.push(Command::Map(0));
                let start = self.0.len();
                self.0.push(Command::String(key));
                visitor.next_value_seed(Collector(self.0))?;
                while visitor.next_key_seed(Collector(self.0))?.is_some() {
                    visitor.next_value_seed(Collector(self.0))?;
                }
                self.0[start - 1] = Command::Map(self.0.len() - start);
            }
            None => self.0.push(Command::Map(0)),
        }

        Ok(())
    }
}

struct DictEntry<'a> {
    key: &'a str,
    val: &'a [Command<'a>],
}

fn pack(packer: &mut RowPacker, value: &[Command]) {
    let mut buf = vec![];
    pack_value(packer, VecStack::new(&mut buf), value);
}

#[inline]
fn pack_value<'a, 'scratch>(
    packer: &mut RowPacker,
    scratch: VecStack<'scratch, DictEntry<'a>>,
    value: &'a [Command<'a>],
) {
    match &value[0] {
        Command::Null => packer.push(Datum::JsonNull),
        Command::Bool(b) => packer.push(if *b { Datum::True } else { Datum::False }),
        Command::Numeric(n) => packer.push(Datum::Numeric(*n)),
        Command::String(s) => packer.push(Datum::String(s)),
        Command::Array(further) => {
            let range = &value[1..][..*further];
            pack_list(packer, scratch, range);
        }
        Command::Map(further) => {
            let range = &value[1..][..*further];
            pack_dict(packer, scratch, range);
        }
    }
}

/// Packs a sequence of values as an ordered list.
fn pack_list<'a, 'scratch>(
    packer: &mut RowPacker,
    mut scratch: VecStack<'scratch, DictEntry<'a>>,
    mut values: &'a [Command<'a>],
) {
    packer.push_list_with(|packer| {
        while !values.is_empty() {
            let value = extract_value(&mut values);
            pack_value(packer, scratch.fresh(), value);
        }
    })
}

/// Packs a sequence of (key, val) pairs as an ordered dictionary.
///
/// The keys are required to be `Command::String` variants, and
/// the entries in the dictionary are sorted by these strings.
/// Multiple values for the same key are detected and only
/// the last value is kept.
fn pack_dict<'a, 'scratch>(
    packer: &mut RowPacker,
    mut scratch: VecStack<'scratch, DictEntry<'a>>,
    mut entries: &'a [Command<'a>],
) {
    while !entries.is_empty() {
        if let Command::String(key) = &entries[0] {
            entries = &entries[1..];
            let val = extract_value(&mut entries);
            scratch.push(DictEntry { key, val });
        } else {
            unreachable!("JSON decoding produced invalid command sequence");
        }
    }

    // Keys must be written in ascending order, per the requirements of our
    // `Row` representation. If keys are duplicated, we must keep only the last
    // value for the key, as ordered by appearance in the source JSON, per
    // PostgreSQL's implementation.
    scratch.sort_by_key(|entry| entry.key);
    packer.push_dict_with(|packer| {
        for i in 0..scratch.len() {
            if i == scratch.len() - 1 || scratch[i].key != scratch[i + 1].key {
                let DictEntry { key, val } = scratch[i];
                packer.push(Datum::String(key));
                pack_value(packer, scratch.fresh(), val);
            }
        }
    });
}

/// Extracts a self-contained slice of commands for the next parse node.
fn extract_value<'a>(values: &mut &'a [Command<'a>]) -> &'a [Command<'a>] {
    let result = match values[0] {
        Command::Array(further) => &values[..further + 1],
        Command::Map(further) => &values[..further + 1],
        _ => &values[0..1],
    };
    *values = &values[result.len()..];
    result
}

/// A wrapper for [`Datum`] that implements [`Serialize`].
///
/// This is a separate type from `JsonbRef` because the `Serialize`
/// implementation is only valid for use with serde_json. If we implemented it
/// on `JsonbRef` directly, it would be possible to serialize a `JsonbRef` into
/// any serde format, like YAML, but that transformation would not be tested
/// and would likely be invalid.
struct JsonbDatum<'a>(Datum<'a>);

impl Serialize for JsonbDatum<'_> {
    fn serialize<S>(&self, serializer: S) -> Result<S::Ok, S::Error>
    where
        S: Serializer,
    {
        match self.0 {
            Datum::JsonNull => serializer.serialize_none(),
            Datum::True => serializer.serialize_bool(true),
            Datum::False => serializer.serialize_bool(false),
            Datum::Numeric(n) => {
                // To serialize an arbitrary-precision number, we present
                // serde_json with the following magic struct:
                //
                //     struct $serde_json::private::Number {
                //          $serde_json::private::Number: <NUMBER VALUE>,
                //     }
                //
                let mut s = serializer.serialize_struct(SERDE_JSON_NUMBER_TOKEN, 1)?;
                s.serialize_field(
                    SERDE_JSON_NUMBER_TOKEN,
                    &n.into_inner().to_standard_notation_string(),
                )?;
                s.end()
            }
            Datum::String(s) => serializer.serialize_str(s),
            Datum::List(list) => {
                let mut seq = serializer.serialize_seq(None)?;
                for e in list.iter() {
                    seq.serialize_element(&JsonbDatum(e))?;
                }
                seq.end()
            }
            Datum::Map(dict) => {
                let mut map = serializer.serialize_map(None)?;
                for (k, v) in dict.iter() {
                    map.serialize_entry(k, &JsonbDatum(v))?;
                }
                map.end()
            }
            d => unreachable!("not a json-compatible datum: {:?}", d),
        }
    }
}

/// Implements `io::Write` for `fmt::Formatter`.
struct WriterFormatter<'a, 'b: 'a> {
    inner: &'a mut fmt::Formatter<'b>,
}

impl<'a, 'b> io::Write for WriterFormatter<'a, 'b> {
    fn write(&mut self, buf: &[u8]) -> io::Result<usize> {
        fn io_error<E>(_: E) -> io::Error {
            // Error value is dropped by `fmt::Display` implementations above.
            io::Error::new(io::ErrorKind::Other, "fmt error")
        }
        let s = str::from_utf8(buf).map_err(io_error)?;
        self.inner.write_str(s).map_err(io_error)?;
        Ok(buf.len())
    }

    fn flush(&mut self) -> io::Result<()> {
        Ok(())
    }
}

mod vec_stack {
    use std::ops::Index;

    /// A `VecStack` presents as a stack of [`Vec`]s where only the vector at
    /// the top of the stack is accessible. It is backed by a single [`Vec`]
    /// whose allocation is reused as elements are added to and dropped from the
    /// stack, and so it can be more efficient than allocating individual
    /// vectors.
    pub struct VecStack<'a, T> {
        buf: &'a mut Vec<T>,
        i: usize,
    }

    impl<'a, T> VecStack<'a, T> {
        /// Creates a new `VecStack` backed by `buf`.
        ///
        /// The stack starts with a single psuedo-vector.
        pub fn new(buf: &'a mut Vec<T>) -> VecStack<'a, T> {
            VecStack { buf, i: 0 }
        }

        /// Adds a new element to the psuedo-vector at the top of the stack.
        pub fn push(&mut self, t: T) {
            self.buf.push(t)
        }

        /// Sorts the psuedo-vector at the top of the stack by the key
        /// identified by `f`.
        pub fn sort_by_key<F, K>(&mut self, f: F)
        where
            F: FnMut(&T) -> K,
            K: Ord,
        {
            self.buf[self.i..].sort_by_key(f)
        }

        /// Returns the length of the psuedo-vector at the top of the stack.
        pub fn len(&self) -> usize {
            self.buf.len() - self.i
        }

        /// Push a fresh vector onto the stack.
        ///
        /// The returned `VecStack` is a handle to this vector. The
        /// psuedo-vector beneath the new vector is inaccessible until the new
        /// handle is dropped.
        pub fn fresh<'b>(&'b mut self) -> VecStack<'b, T> {
            let i = self.buf.len();
            VecStack { buf: self.buf, i }
        }
    }

    impl<'a, T> Index<usize> for VecStack<'a, T> {
        type Output = T;

        fn index(&self, i: usize) -> &Self::Output {
            &self.buf[self.i + i]
        }
    }

    impl<'a, T> Drop for VecStack<'a, T> {
        fn drop(&mut self) {
            self.buf.truncate(self.i)
        }
    }
}