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// Copyright Materialize, Inc. and contributors. All rights reserved.
//
// Use of this software is governed by the Business Source License
// included in the LICENSE file.
//
// As of the Change Date specified in that file, in accordance with
// the Business Source License, use of this software will be governed
// by the Apache License, Version 2.0.

//! `EXPLAIN` support for structures defined in this crate.

use std::collections::BTreeMap;
use std::fmt::Formatter;
use std::time::Duration;

use mz_ore::str::{separated, Indent, IndentLike};
use mz_repr::explain::text::DisplayText;
use mz_repr::explain::ExplainError::LinearChainsPlusRecursive;
use mz_repr::explain::{
    AnnotatedPlan, Explain, ExplainConfig, ExplainError, ExprHumanizer, ScalarOps,
    UnsupportedFormat, UsedIndexes,
};
use mz_repr::optimize::OptimizerFeatures;
use mz_repr::GlobalId;

use crate::interpret::{Interpreter, MfpEval, Trace};
use crate::visit::Visit;
use crate::{
    AccessStrategy, Id, LocalId, MapFilterProject, MirRelationExpr, MirScalarExpr, RowSetFinishing,
};

pub use crate::explain::text::{
    fmt_text_constant_rows, HumanizedExplain, HumanizedExpr, HumanizedNotice, HumanizerMode,
};

mod json;
mod text;

/// Explain context shared by all [`mz_repr::explain::Explain`]
/// implementations in this crate.
#[derive(Debug)]
pub struct ExplainContext<'a> {
    pub config: &'a ExplainConfig,
    pub features: &'a OptimizerFeatures,
    pub humanizer: &'a dyn ExprHumanizer,
    pub used_indexes: UsedIndexes,
    pub finishing: Option<RowSetFinishing>,
    pub duration: Duration,
    // Cluster against which the explained plan is optimized.
    pub target_cluster: Option<&'a str>,
    // This is a String so that we don't have to move `OptimizerNotice` to `mz-expr`. We can revisit
    // this decision if we want to every make this print in the json output in a machine readable
    // way.
    pub optimizer_notices: Vec<String>,
}

/// A structure produced by the `explain_$format` methods in
/// [`mz_repr::explain::Explain`] implementations for points
/// in the optimization pipeline identified with a single plan of
/// type `T`.
#[allow(missing_debug_implementations)]
pub struct ExplainSinglePlan<'a, T> {
    pub context: &'a ExplainContext<'a>,
    pub plan: AnnotatedPlan<'a, T>,
}

/// Carries metadata about the possibility of MFP pushdown for a source.
/// (Likely to change, and only emitted when a context flag is enabled.)
#[allow(missing_debug_implementations)]
pub struct PushdownInfo<'a> {
    /// Pushdown-able filters in the source, by index.
    pub pushdown: Vec<&'a MirScalarExpr>,
}

impl<'a, C, M> DisplayText<C> for HumanizedExpr<'a, PushdownInfo<'a>, M>
where
    C: AsMut<Indent>,
    M: HumanizerMode,
{
    fn fmt_text(&self, f: &mut Formatter<'_>, ctx: &mut C) -> std::fmt::Result {
        let PushdownInfo { pushdown } = self.expr;

        if !pushdown.is_empty() {
            let pushdown = pushdown.iter().map(|e| self.mode.expr(*e, self.cols));
            let pushdown = separated(" AND ", pushdown);
            writeln!(f, "{}pushdown=({})", ctx.as_mut(), pushdown)?;
        }

        Ok(())
    }
}

#[allow(missing_debug_implementations)]
pub struct ExplainSource<'a> {
    pub id: GlobalId,
    pub op: Option<&'a MapFilterProject>,
    pub pushdown_info: Option<PushdownInfo<'a>>,
}

impl<'a> ExplainSource<'a> {
    pub fn new(
        id: GlobalId,
        op: Option<&'a MapFilterProject>,
        filter_pushdown: bool,
    ) -> ExplainSource<'a> {
        let pushdown_info = if filter_pushdown {
            op.map(|op| {
                let mfp_mapped = MfpEval::new(&Trace, op.input_arity, &op.expressions);
                let pushdown = op
                    .predicates
                    .iter()
                    .filter(|(_, e)| mfp_mapped.expr(e).pushdownable())
                    .map(|(_, e)| e)
                    .collect();
                PushdownInfo { pushdown }
            })
        } else {
            None
        };

        ExplainSource {
            id,
            op,
            pushdown_info,
        }
    }

    #[inline]
    pub fn is_identity(&self) -> bool {
        match self.op {
            Some(op) => op.is_identity(),
            None => false,
        }
    }
}

impl<'a, 'h, C, M> DisplayText<C> for HumanizedExpr<'a, ExplainSource<'a>, M>
where
    C: AsMut<Indent> + AsRef<&'h dyn ExprHumanizer>,
    M: HumanizerMode,
{
    fn fmt_text(&self, f: &mut std::fmt::Formatter<'_>, ctx: &mut C) -> std::fmt::Result {
        let id = ctx
            .as_ref()
            .humanize_id(self.expr.id)
            .unwrap_or_else(|| self.expr.id.to_string());
        writeln!(f, "{}Source {}", ctx.as_mut(), id)?;
        ctx.indented(|ctx| {
            if let Some(op) = self.expr.op {
                self.child(op).fmt_text(f, ctx)?;
            }
            if let Some(pushdown_info) = &self.expr.pushdown_info {
                self.child(pushdown_info).fmt_text(f, ctx)?;
            }
            Ok(())
        })
    }
}

/// A structure produced by the `explain_$format` methods in
/// [`mz_repr::explain::Explain`] implementations at points
/// in the optimization pipeline identified with a
/// `DataflowDescription` instance with plans of type `T`.
#[allow(missing_debug_implementations)]
pub struct ExplainMultiPlan<'a, T> {
    pub context: &'a ExplainContext<'a>,
    // Maps the names of the sources to the linear operators that will be
    // on them.
    pub sources: Vec<ExplainSource<'a>>,
    // elements of the vector are in topological order
    pub plans: Vec<(String, AnnotatedPlan<'a, T>)>,
}

impl<'a> Explain<'a> for MirRelationExpr {
    type Context = ExplainContext<'a>;

    type Text = ExplainSinglePlan<'a, MirRelationExpr>;

    type Json = ExplainSinglePlan<'a, MirRelationExpr>;

    type Dot = UnsupportedFormat;

    fn explain_text(&'a mut self, context: &'a Self::Context) -> Result<Self::Text, ExplainError> {
        self.as_explain_single_plan(context)
    }

    fn explain_json(&'a mut self, context: &'a Self::Context) -> Result<Self::Json, ExplainError> {
        self.as_explain_single_plan(context)
    }
}

impl<'a> MirRelationExpr {
    fn as_explain_single_plan(
        &'a mut self,
        context: &'a ExplainContext<'a>,
    ) -> Result<ExplainSinglePlan<'a, MirRelationExpr>, ExplainError> {
        // normalize the representation as linear chains
        // (this implies !context.config.raw_plans by construction)
        if context.config.linear_chains {
            enforce_linear_chains(self)?;
        };

        let plan = AnnotatedPlan {
            plan: self,
            annotations: BTreeMap::default(),
        };

        Ok(ExplainSinglePlan { context, plan })
    }
}

/// Normalize the way inputs of multi-input variants are rendered.
///
/// After the transform is applied, non-trival inputs `$input` of variants with
/// more than one input are wrapped in a `let $x = $input in $x` blocks.
///
/// If these blocks are subsequently pulled up by `NormalizeLets`,
/// the rendered version of the resulting tree will only have linear chains.
pub fn enforce_linear_chains(expr: &mut MirRelationExpr) -> Result<(), ExplainError> {
    use MirRelationExpr::{Constant, Get, Join, Union};

    if expr.is_recursive() {
        // `linear_chains` is not implemented for WMR, see
        // https://github.com/MaterializeInc/materialize/issues/19012
        return Err(LinearChainsPlusRecursive);
    }

    // helper struct: a generator of fresh local ids
    let mut id_gen = id_gen(expr).peekable();

    let mut wrap_in_let = |input: &mut MirRelationExpr| {
        match input {
            Constant { .. } | Get { .. } => (),
            input => {
                // generate fresh local id
                // let id = id_cnt
                //     .next()
                //     .map(|id| LocalId::new(1000_u64 + u64::cast_from(id_map.len()) + id))
                //     .unwrap();
                let id = id_gen.next().unwrap();
                let value = input.take_safely();
                // generate a `let $fresh_id = $body in $fresh_id` to replace this input
                let mut binding = MirRelationExpr::Let {
                    id,
                    value: Box::new(value),
                    body: Box::new(Get {
                        id: Id::Local(id.clone()),
                        typ: input.typ(),
                        access_strategy: AccessStrategy::UnknownOrLocal,
                    }),
                };
                // swap the current body with the replacement
                std::mem::swap(input, &mut binding);
            }
        }
    };

    expr.try_visit_mut_post(&mut |expr: &mut MirRelationExpr| {
        match expr {
            Join { inputs, .. } => {
                for input in inputs {
                    wrap_in_let(input);
                }
            }
            Union { base, inputs } => {
                wrap_in_let(base);
                for input in inputs {
                    wrap_in_let(input);
                }
            }
            _ => (),
        }
        Ok(())
    })
}

// Create an [`Iterator`] for [`LocalId`] values that are guaranteed to be
// fresh within the scope of the given [`MirRelationExpr`].
fn id_gen(expr: &MirRelationExpr) -> impl Iterator<Item = LocalId> {
    let mut max_id = 0_u64;

    expr.visit_pre(|expr| {
        match expr {
            MirRelationExpr::Let { id, .. } => max_id = std::cmp::max(max_id, id.into()),
            _ => (),
        };
    });

    (max_id + 1..).map(LocalId::new)
}

impl ScalarOps for MirScalarExpr {
    fn match_col_ref(&self) -> Option<usize> {
        match self {
            MirScalarExpr::Column(c) => Some(*c),
            _ => None,
        }
    }

    fn references(&self, column: usize) -> bool {
        match self {
            MirScalarExpr::Column(c) => *c == column,
            _ => false,
        }
    }
}